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Geography Worksheets All Chapters

Hellow and Asslam again to all m blog i am gonna upload the geography worksheets which would be a complete key for your in preparing your exams  follow the instructions to get the file

                      Drag down your cursor to download the worksheets (click on Download button) . I have locked the download file for security reasons ( what ever you call ) so click on download and within few hours i will grant you permission ;) Enjoyee !!!

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English Grammar Section

     Asslam to all my blog i have posted the worksheets of English of Grammar which you will find Direct , Indirect , Reporting and Reported drag down your cursor to download the worksheets (click on Download button) . I have locked the download file for security reasons ( what ever you call ) so click on download and within few hours i will grant you permission ;) Enjoyee !!!

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ISL worksheets of all 20 ahadis 2nd Term

Hellow and asslam to my blog /class blog readers.Here i got some important note of ahadis in typed form ,in which will find all 20 ahadis in easy language which would be helpful to you in your examination.Hope so you gonna Enjoyee these note.It's totally free ;)

Plz mail me  @      for any help/improvement in class blog.And let me know that in which format I should provide you note direct on my blog (just simply read it on blog) ?
I should upload it on a separate  uploading sites

Plz Mail my .I will be waiting for you

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Mineral Resources (WorkSheet)

Topic: Mineral Resources
          Exercise Questions

Q.1. How would you differentiate between metallic and non-metallic minerals?

Ans. Metallic Minerals:
  1. An element that reflects light (is shiny).
  2. Metallic mineral re those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.
  3. Iron, cooper, bauxite, tin, manganese are some examples.
  4. These are generally associated with igneous rocks.
  5. They are usually hard and have shines or lustre of their own.
  6. They are ductile and malleable.
  7. When hit, they do not get broken.

Non-Metallic Minerals:
  1. An element that does not reflect light (not shiny).
  2. Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting.
  3. Coal, salt, clay, marble are some examples.
  4. These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.
  5. They are not so hard and have no shine or lustre of their own.
  6. They are not ductile and malleable.
  7. When hit, they may get broken into pieces.

a)      Name four non-metallic minerals (other than coal) which are mined in Pakistan.
                    i.            Limestone
                  ii.            Marble
                iii.            Rock salt
                iv.            Gypsum

b)     For each of the minerals you have named in (a) describe its uses in Pakistan.
                    i.            Limestone is mainly used in cement making. It is also used in iron and steel industry, and in manufacture of bleaching powder, glass, paper and paints.
                  ii.            Marble is used in house buildings.
                iii.            Rock salt is used in cooking tanning and leather industry and in making different kind of sodas.
                iv.            Gypsum is used in cement industry and in making plaster of paris and papermaking.

c)      State the meaning of the terms “Mineral exploration” and “Mineral extraction”.
Ans.Mineral Exploration means searching out of minerals. This is also called prospecting. Mineral Extraction means working and taking out the minerals from the mines.
d)     Describe the measures and policies which have been introduced in Pakistan to promote the exploration for and the exploitation of Minerals.
Ans. Soon after the partition the department of Geological survey of Pakistan was opened. It did very useful work in searching out and locating workable mineral deposits in the country. In 1961 Oil and Gas Corporation of Pakistan was established to explore, develop, produce, refine and sell oil and gas. For speedy development Pakistan Mineral Corporation was established in 1974.Resource development corporation was founded to develop Saindak Copper deposits of Baluchistan. Gemstone corporation of Pakistan was formed in 1979.Provincial Mineral development Corporations were formed in each province to develop the mineral resources of the province. Government of Pakistan seeks the collaboration of mining companies of foreign countries for the development and exploitation of mineral resources.
Q.13.What are the various effects of mining?
Ans.The various effects of mining are:
  1. Vegetation cut down resulting in soil exposure.
  2. Natural landscape deformed due to construction of roads and miners’ houses
  3. Rock blasting and digging of earth.
  4. Noise pollution and ground vibration from blasting.
  5. Traditional mining methods are dangerous for the health of miners.
  6. Land pollution due to mining waste.
  7. Water supply polluted from mineral waste.
  8. Air pollution from dust and smoke.

Q.3. (a) Study the map Fig.5-A which, shows the distribution in Pakistan of deposits of three minerals.
Questions &Answers

  1. ii1
Which of the minerals has most widespread deposits?
  1. 2
Which of the minerals has the deposits only towards the North of Pakistan?
Ans.Rock salt
  1. 3
Name one source of limestone that has led to the development of a cement factory at Karachi.
Ans. Manghopir Hills and Murli Hills near Karachi
  1. 4
Name one source of limestone that has enabled a cement factory to be built at Hyderabad.
Ans. Ganjo Takar Hills of limestone near Hyderabad.

V.Explain your choices in (iii) and (iv).

Ans. Limestone is the basic raw material for cement making. Since limestone is a heavy and bulky commodity; it becomes uneconomical if transported over long distances. Therefore cement factories are built very close to the source of limestone. The Manghopir Hills in the vicinity of Karachi and Ganjo Takar Hills near Hyderabad are providing raw material for cement factories.
Q.3. (b) Why is the extraction of limestone so important to industry and agriculture in Pakistan?
Ans. Limestone is found at many places in all four provinces of Pakistan. It is the chief raw material for cement making. It is also used in manufacturing of Lime, bleaching powder, glass soap, paper and paints. Limestone is also used as flux in iron and steel industry. Limestone is an important building material also. It is widely used in building of roads. In agriculture Limestone is used as fertilizer and to reduce salinity. Lime solution is painted on fruit tree trunks for protection against pests and termites.Indirectly, cement is used in building of dams and to line canals which helps agriculture.

Q.3. (c)
  1. Look at Fig 5-A and name one gypsum deposit in the Salt Range.
 Ans. Khewra (also Dandot and Daudkhel)
  1. State one use for gypsum.
Ans. Gypsum is used in cement making. It is also used in making of plaster of paris, paint, paper and rubber industries.
  1. In what ways is rock salt important to industry and to people?
Ans. Rock salt is used in food industry. It is used as preservatives. Leather industry also uses much salt. Salt is used in chemical industry for the manufacture of different kinds of sodas such as caustic soda, washing soda and bi-carbonate of soda. These are widely used in textile industry, tanning and laundries. Pakistan is not only elf-sufficient, but also exports salt to nearby countries.Rocksalt is used in cooking and preservatives. Mining of rock salt provides employment to people.

Q.3. (d)
  1. Name one other non-metallic mineral extracted in Pakistan.
Ans. Marble. (Also coal, oil, gas, china –clay, sulphur).
  1. How does the production of non-metallic minerals in Pakistan help its economy?
Ans. Pakistan has vast deposits of some important non-metallic minerals such as rock salt, limestone, gypsum, marble and china-clay.Coal, oil and gas are also non-metallic minerals. All these minerals are important for the economy of Pakistan. Rock salt and marble are exported and bring foreign exchange to Pakistan. Many of these minerals are raw material for industries. The progress in cement industry and chemical industry are because of deposits of rock salt and limestone. Coal, oil and gas are also important because their production helps to reduce the import of fuels. Gas has been especially very helpful in the progress of Pakistan economy .Its production has saved much foreign exchange. Gas is used in many industries, fertilizer industry and power generation. Coal is used in brick kilns and for power generation.

Additional  Questions:
Q.1.Name three ways by which coal is mined.
Ans.Three methods of coal mining are:
  1. Strip or open cast mining
  2. Adit mining
  3. Shaft mining
Q.2.Why is coal produced in Pakistan described as low quality?
Ans. Pakistan’s caol is of low quality.It is lignite caol.It is low in carbon content,high in sulphur content and has impurities.It burns of quickly and does not produce high temperature.It gives out much smoke and produces much ash.Therefore Pakistani coal is of low quality.
Q.3.Name the two main raw materials quarried in Pakistan that are used to make cement.
Ans. Limestone and Gypsum.
Q.4.Describe the distribution of Limestone extraction in Pakistan.
Ans. Limestone is widely distributed in Pakistan.It is found in abundance in all four provinces.In Punjab Limestone is found in the Potwar plateau and salt range mainly near khewra,Dandot,dandkhel,Rawalpindi and D.G Khan.In Khyber pakhtoonkhwa limestone is found near Nowshera and Kohat.In Baluchistan it is found in Harnai.In Sindh Limestone is found at Kot Deji Hills near Rohri in upper sindh,at Ganjo takkar Hills near Hyderabad, at Mangopir and Murli Hills near Karachi.
Q.5.Limestone and rock salt are both called “bulky goods”. What is the cheapest form of transport for these goods?
Ans. Rail Transport and Trucks.
Q.6.Why is the supply of limestone to most areas likely to be cheaper than rock salt?
Ans. Cement factories are located very close to the source of limestone and it is a low value commodity as compared to rock salt which is high value commodity and is supplied all over the country.Therefore,the supply of limestone is likely to be cheaper than that of rock salt.
Q.7.What is a mixture of Rock salt and water called?
Ans. Brine and it is used in chemical industry.
Q.8.What is rock salt used for in Pakistan?
Ans. Rock salt is used in food in Pakistan. It is also used as preservative in leather industry, and for manufacture of different kinds of sodas such as soda ash, washing soda and caustic soda.
Q.9.How are minerals formed?
Ans. There are four ways that minerals can be formed. From molten rock, from solution, within living cells and by recrystallization.
Q.10.What are the various methods of Mining?
Ans.There are two main methods of Mining.
1-Open-cast Mining : Open-pit mining, open-cut mining or opencast mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
2-Underground Mining:  There are two types of underground mining.
        i.            Adit Mining: An adit is an opening or passage.Adit mining is done in hilly districts where a mineral seam is exposed on a hill side.
      ii.            Shaft Mining: Vertical shafts are dug down to the minerals, especially for coal. Tunnels are then dug horizontally to the layers or seams of the minerals which is then removed through the tunnels. This method is expensive and can be dangerous.

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